Some of the crew members were shipwrecked in the islands, and some chose to stay and married CHamoru women. Virtually all types of galleys had sails that could be used in favorable winds, but human effort was always the primary method of propulsion. In fact, during the campaign of 1588, the English commanders preferred to engage in artillery duels, thereby not allowing the Spanish galleons and other warships to come in close range. Apprentices were sailors in training. These individuals conceivably could have engaged with the CHamoru people in interactions of trade and cultural exchange under various circumstances. And this space was rather reduced for the rank-and-file mariner, especially with the captain and his officers occupying the relatively ‘comfortable’ quarters of the upper deck. He accomplished this with a whistle from the poop deck, while his assistant, the boatswain mate, directed the work at prow. But in the majority of cases, he writes, “this charge was more or less honorific, and the onboard activity of the captain consisted in nothing more that directing the defense of the ship in case of enemy attack.” He says that the general of the fleet could honor a distinguished gentleman by naming him as captain. He would receive rations but no pay. The reduction in their war-capability possibly also reflects how the Spaniards faced little to no opposition on their maritime trade routes, especially during the period between the 1590s till 1620s. Crew size depended on the size of the galleon. Home » Blog Posts » Military » Spanish Galleon: 10 Things You Should Know. The galleons that passed through the Marianas carried scores of crew members in addition to soldiers and colonial or mission helpers on their way to the Marianas and the Philippines. In addition to these duties, the pages took orders from all of the sailors and apprentices on the ship. They were also charged with night watches, and when the night was over, to chant “Buenos Dias” in the morning. 1 First Mate 3. No. In this case, the page was exclusively at the service of his protector, unlike “ship’s pages” that were at the service of the entire crew. Thus in the initial phases of galleon development during the 16th century, the onboard artillery only took a secondary role, while boarding actions were still given preference by the Spanish commanders. For starters, the experienced sailors, as opposed to the soldiers, were given the responsibility of operating the artillery. In that regard, during the Battle of Preveza in circa 1538 AD, a Venetian ship, described as a galleon, was said to have countered multiple Turkish galleys – thereby suggesting how the vessel was well-armed and yet maneuverable. They trade power and durability for maneuverability and simplicity. His job was to see to it that the ship had all the necessary resources, licensing and permits to carry out its mission. His duties also included overseeing the re-provisioning and moving of the provisions around the ship as needed. A Ship acts as a mobile base and command center, transporting supplies, Treasure, and other Quest rewards and items, as well as providing mobile access to player resources via Resource Barrels, Ammo Chests and the Armoury. Sailors handled the helm (a difficult task before the wheel was invented). He was responsible for not only obtaining the cargo, but the crew, ship’s equipment, arms and provisions. Intelligent and skilled sailors could advance to the position of gunner or sea officer and in some cases, if they had the means and wherewithal to stop work and attend classes in Seville, they could eventually advance to the position of pilot. In that regard, while earlier galleons and other warships were the products of ill-conceived ‘agreements’ that forced shipbuilders to work within the confines of royal shipyards, by the early 17th century, the crown offered incentives to private contractors and financiers to build their warships from the ground up. Ship’s pages were the least skilled of the crew and, as a result, had to carry out menial duties such as scrubbing and cleaning the ship, preparing the distribution of provisions, calling the crew to meals and cleaning up afterwards. Baltimore: The John Hopkins University Press. According to Pablo E. Perez-Mallaina in Spain’s Men of the Sea, the captain’s sole duty was to defend the ship from enemy attack. With multiple sails and complex rigging, it took a minimum crew of 80 to operate proficiently. Whereas earlier patterns entailed the experienced (but still personal) judgment of the generational shipbuilders, late 16th and early 17th centuries brought forth the ideals of mathematical precision and measurements that dictated the flow of work and design elements of maritime vessels. History of Micronesia, Vol. According to historian Angus Konstam, the early 16th century was a period of innovation for ship designs, with the adoption of better sailing rigs and onboard artillery systems. The enemy's guns more often damaged the rigging and masts, and inflicted serious wounds on the crew from flying splinters when shot crashed through wood. Featured Image Source: Painting by Roland Davies (1stDibs), Book Reference: Spanish Galleon 1530-1690 (By Angus Konstam), Online Sources: The Mariner’s Museum / Pirate Glossary / Encyclopedia.com. A good carpenter had to know how to cap a breach in the hull, make a pulley, a cabin or a launch. To that end, it should be noted that the Spanish Armada consisted of different kinds of vessels and warships, ranging from the naos, galleasses to smaller crafts. Smaller galleons functioned with a crew of 50, while the crew of the larger galleons could number more than 400. As for the guns on board, many of the older wrought iron specimens were already replaced by bronze ordnance by 1588 AD. And while their Mediterranean origins are undeniable, galleons were also developed by northern European powers of the time, thereby signifying the effectiveness of the vessel design and its armed capability. 20: Bibliography of Micronesia, ships through Micronesia, Cumulative Index. Consequently, many of these treasure-carrying Royal Galleons were designed to be smaller and less-armed than their continental cousins. According to historian Angus Konstam, the various sections of the galleon decks were named after castle elements. June 7, 2019. In both respects, it is comparable to the frigate. As for the guns themselves, according to Angus Konstam, there were several varieties, including the larger canones (cannon), culebrinas (culverins), pedreros (stone-shotted guns), bombardettas (wrought-iron guns), and versos (swivel guns). This trend of adopting larger sizes for Atlantic convoys explains the (later) removal of oar-based systems from the vessels since sweeps mostly came in handy in coastal areas and calm seas, not the high seas. In later years, due to serious efforts to increase the proportion of Spaniards in these positions, Andalusian and Basque gunners increased significantly. 1 Spotter 4. They handled the rigging and ropes during maneuvers and attended to the sounding line that determined the water’s depth. In the 1520s, the Portuguese used patrol vessels in the Indian Ocean known as galleones, while by the 1530s, the French referred to the Spanish warships as a galeons. Furthermore, boarding actions were still perceived as effective tactics, but the boarding parties were organized and prepared in accordance with their expertise (ranging from melee situations, throwing grenades and incendiaries, to extinguishing fires). Suffice it to say, the canones and culebrinas (subdivided into various weights and sizes) were the mainstays of the Spanish galleon; and the capacity of the vessel itself often mirrored the number of guns on board. Suffice it to say, the sleeker galleon was ironically anachronistic, with the focus of shipbuilders once again shifting to the bigger warships with broadside artillery platforms. “What Really Made the World go Around? Such escorting galleons, called the Armada de la Guardia, were part of the Armada del Mar Oceano (Atlantic Fleet) from the 1580s, and the latter organization ultimately morphed into a permanent navy in the 17th century. Consequently, the galleons were breeding grounds for various diseases, including yellow fever (and its high mortality rate) exported from the Caribbean. Harking back to our romanticized notions of the veritable Spanish Armada and the early transatlantic trade routes of the 16th century, the Galleon serves as the quintessential template of the Spanish naval might. As a result, many indios of Filipino and Southeast Asian origin made up the majority of the crew. Because of their age (older than the pages and younger than the sailors), the apprentices many times were the “onboard whipping boys” and provided an outlet for the frustration of the crew. Caribbean Tales - Ships - Galleon. A large proportion of sergeants and gunners were not Spanish but Germans, Flemings and Italians. Dutton & Co., Inc. Searles, USN Commander P.J. Those with family ties to a high-ranking officer or who were able to forge a friendship with a crew member had the best protection. Clumsy and slow, but seaworthy, this ship above all others fired a pirate’s imagination. However, this seemingly ambitious phase of shipbuilding was only transitory – since the Spanish crown decided to ‘refocus’ on the commercial potential of the galleon. The primary shipyards in 16th century Spain pertained to the Basque coast of northern Spain and southern Andalusian coast, while (oddly enough) the eastern Mediterranean coastline was largely left out of the galleon-building industry. What kinds of people made up these galleon crews? 47:17-38. She served as a hospital ship after 1791, and was finally broken up in 1813. In addition to Spaniards, many crew members were native Filipino or Mexicans who brought with them their language, customs and other traditions and beliefs that both impressed, and in many cases, were adopted by the CHamoru people. By the late 1700’s indios from the Philippine islands were valued for their seamanship. In 16th century Spanish circles, the basic rule prescribed by shipbuilders and the administration entailed how each ship should carry one person per tonelada of its weight. New innovations in design and equipment make large yachts easier to handle for small crews. Lengths of 200 feet (60 metres) became common for such ships, which displaced 1,200 to 2,000 tons and had crews of 600 to 800 men. “The Manila Galleon.” The Manila Galleons and the Forging of the Pacific Rim. Average speed is 7 knots. Heesen Yachts: Building a Legacy. Stats . The Phoenicians were apparently the first to introduce the bireme (about 700 bc), which had two banks of oars staggered on either side As others have stated, the answer depends very much on the specifics of the ship. Thus in the following decades, the galleon design and armaments went through numerous changes that rather propelled its status as a dedicated warship rather than an armed carrier. To that end, records of the Spanish navy from the early 17th century show that each galleon had an average of 90 to 100 crew members, excluding the soldiers. Capacity ranged up to 900 tons or more. Described as ‘steaming like hell and stinking like the devil’ by one Spanish passenger in 1573 AD, the sullied water and the residues even had the tendency to attract rats – one of the major health risks inside ships during the period. For example, the multi-tiered sterncastle behind the mainmast (or mizzenmast) was often referred to as the alcazar (fortress), while the entire space was also called the tolda (awning). Mortality rates were high, especially in the early years of the Manila galleon trade. Mateo, Jose Eugenio Borao. Essentially, this translated to a Spanish crown’s near monopoly on the transatlantic trade route that not only covered coins and ingots of silver and gold but also a wealth of other valuable items like emeralds and pearls. However it served the dual purpose of being both a Man-O-War and also a treasure/merchant ship. They had to know how to make gunpowder, fill grenades, select the type of projectiles to use against an enemy ship, maneuver, load and fire the cannon, maintain it and keep it steady aboard the moving ship. Among these, the pedreros – used as close-range anti-personnel weapons, and bombardettas – with their lower ranges when compared to bronze guns, were increasingly considered as outdated by the 17th century. A more accurate sloop would be the length of the galleon and could be sailed by 8-15 but would need a crew of 30 or more to effectively fight her. Also, because finding skilled Spanish seamen became a problem, some of the ships officers were foreigners. The Manila Galleon. Galley, large seagoing vessel propelled primarily by oars. The boatswain mate was primarily charged with being in command of the ships auxiliary craft. The caulker was tasked with filling the juncture of the hull planking and deck with oakum and tar. The Admiral was the second-in-command of the fleet. During the time of King Philip II’s reign (1556-98), the Spanish galleon increased in size and capacity. Due to their smaller size, Sloops are easier to repair than the larger Galleons. The ships pages also kept track of time by turning the sand clock every half hour and reciting psalms or litanies that were answered in chorus by the crew. “The arrival of the Spanish galleons in Manila from the Pacific Ocean and their departure along the Kuroshio stream (16th and 17th centuries),” in Journal of Geographical Research. However, the galleon also shared some design features with the nao, given its sturdier construction and stronger sailing rig. Over time, their versatility also translated into a commercial advantage, with the some of the galleons being converted into armed coin-carrying ships of the Spanish crown – as mentioned earlier in the article (see the Royal Galleon entry). Incredibly enough, the guns, along with the powder and shot, were mostly manufactured by royal foundries and workshops (while in some cases, guns were also imported from abroad) – and as such, the Spanish relied on an ‘economical’ system where guns were specifically furnished for the galleon-type with allocated ammunition that had to be returned to the royal authorities if left unused. In essence, the galleons, especially the larger specimens, were perceived as floating fortresses (albeit with finer design considerations when compared to carracks) that could accommodate its fair share of defenders – in the form of well-trained musketeers who could perform boarding actions. While it cannot maneuver well like the smaller Sloop, the Galleon is unmatched in firepower and speed. Blair, Emma Helen and James Alexander (eds.). Galleons guarded the treasure bound for Spain and the king’s coffers. Phillips, Carla Rahn (transl.). Every afternoon the pages recited the tenets and principal prayers of the Christian faith. They set the course for the ship by watching the trim of the sails and the compass while implementing the orders of the pilot. Because of the experience required for this position, the average age of pilots was over 40 years. Suffice it to say, such cramped conditions spelled complications when it came to the sanitation of the galleon. Punishing those involved in stealing food was another duty. 8 Riggers 7. He was the administrator of the ship and had to certify to the owners of the ship, owners of the cargo and the government officials that all contracts and laws were followed and taxes paid. 1 Helmsman 5. However, in practice, the ratio was far more skewed in favor of the cargo (rather than the crew) with figures of one person (gente de mar or mariner) per 5.5 toneladas, since the 1550s, and one person per 6.25 toneladas since the 1630s. A Voyage round the World containing the most remarkable things he saw in the Philippine Islands. Another source of crewmembers were deportees, prisoners and other undesirables from Spain and the colonies. Ideal crew numbers were probably not often reached but ships had always started the journey with over the minimum number of crew needed in order to account for the loss they will sustain on the journey. Princess Yachts Adds ElectroSea’s New Clearline System to Yachts Over 90 Feet. In terms of placements, the largest guns were carried as stern chasers, while the others, divided between the two broadsides, were arranged along a long gundeck. 1959. The Galleon was the ship of the line for its day. 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