Detail of the Rumford Baking Powder National Historic Chemical Landmark plaque at the Rumford Center in East Providence, R.I. Rumford Baking Powder plaque and display at the Clabber Girl Museum in Terre Haute, Ind. 1155 Sixteenth Street, NW, Washington, DC 20036, USA | service@acs.org | 1-800-333-9511 (US and Canada) | 614-447-3776 (outside North America), Copyright © 2020 American Chemical Society. After 1854, his main preoccupation was to discover a substitute for yeast in baking bread.10 At the same time, Horsford entered into a business partnership with George Wilson, a former textile manufacturer, to establish the Rumford Chemical Works. Through much of history the color of bread revealed social status: the darker the bread, the lower a person's status. Rumford spent the last dozen years of his life in Paris. This was packaged in bottles, but Horsford was interested in using metal cans for packing; this meant the mixture had to be more moisture resistant. This compound acted as the acid. In May 1775 Thompson was arrested on the charge of "being inimical to the liberties of this country." Baking powder works by releasing carbon dioxide gas into a batter or dough through an acid-base reaction, causing bubbles in … Everett assured Horsford that his work was "not to be arduous," with his teaching responsibilities limited to two hours a day for four five days a week. Uncover the Chemistry in Everyday Life, Recognizing and celebrating excellence in chemistry and celebrate your achievements. Over six years of fighting, millions of dollars in bribes were paid, dozens were sent to jail for simply selling baking powder, and the muckraking press forced the resignation of the state's lieutenant governor. History Lives Here. Jan 9, 2014 - Count Rumford: invented Rumford fireplace design and Rumford Baking Powder Keep up-to-date on: © 2020 Smithsonian Magazine. By 1899 Clabber brand baking powder had been introduced, and today the Clabber Girl brand, as renamed in 1923, is distributed nationwide and to many different countries around the world. Early in 1854 Wilson left his principal's post at Chicago Academy and returned to his native Uxbridge, Massachusetts, with the aim of starting a business. Baking powder was an incredible invention in 1859 – it gave the needed leavening power to batters and dough but prior to Rumford, the leavening power varied greatly in degree depending on what baking powder the cook used. Find a chemistry community of interest and connect on a local and global level. In 1805—his first wife having died in 1792—he married the widow of the famous French chemist, Antoine Lavoisier. Still, bread riots frequently rocked the stability of Europe, most notably in the events leading to the French Revolution. Now manufactured in Terre Haute, Indiana, by Hulman & Company, the modern form of baking powder was first produced in Rumford by George … Throughout the Middle Ages and well into the modern era the price and availability of bread was often linked to social stability. Smithsonian Institution. The company Royal Baking Powder quickly capitalized on the traditional cream of tartar that had been used ad hoc by housewives, while Calumet and Clabber Girl aimed to be more modern by using the acid sodium aluminum phosphate (alum), which was cheaper and much stronger than other baking powder acids. He established a chemical merchandising firm in Providence, Rhode Island, which he named George F. Wilson & Co. and which specialized in the supply of chemicals to the local textile industry. History. Liebig had an international reputation, and through his writings and the students he trained, he exerted great influence over chemistry and agriculture in the United States.6, Horsford's first meeting with Liebig did not go well, with the American complaining that he was "received indifferently. Baking powder companies worked to change this by releasing their own cookbooks, which served as both marketing and instruction manuals for their products. He contributed an original design for an armed frigate to a treatise on naval architecture published in 1781. the Baking Powder War. Unfortunately, the site they picked proved unacceptable as neighbors complained about the constant escape of sulfur dioxide during the manufacturing process. Jan 9, 2014 - Count Rumford: invented Rumford fireplace design and Rumford Baking Powder Wow. Rumford Low-Sodium Baking Powder I recently received a press release about this new product from Rumford (really Clabber Girl, which now owns the Rumford brand). This required extra time in measuring. So what changed? He was released but never received a public hearing. History of Baking Powder. The baking powder devised by Horsford first carried his name, only later becoming Rumford Baking Powder. It was packaged in bottles, but Horsford wanted to use metal cans for packing, which meant the mixture had to be more moisture resistant. See Jones, "Justus von Liebig , Eben Horsford and the Development of the Baking Powder Industry," p. 73. Return to Top . After that, he served as an apprentice clerk in Boston, enrolled as a medical student, and taught school. You don't have to look far to see baking powder's continued hegemony today: cooks around the world use it in everything from cupcakes to crepes, muffins to madeleines, danishes to doughnuts. I had no idea there was aluminum in baking powder! During and immediately after the Civil War, New Englander Eben Horsford’s Rumford Baking Powder pioneered the industry, making it easier to bake bread. The government of Rome ran public bakeries for doling out bread to the poor. The action of the two chemicals—initially marketed in twin envelopes—began as soon as they were added to the wet dough or batter. And he was certain… But by the 1830s, progressive farmers like Horsford's father recognized that intensive agriculture had led to soil depletion.5. Later that year, Wilson sought Horsford's cooperation in the development of chemical products which Wilson would manufacture.13. Development of Baking Powder. Rumford Recipes. Privacy Statement Horsford was Rumford Professor at Harvard University and Wilson was a school teacher with a flair for industry who wished to enter business. Today, baking powder "is like air, water,” Civitello says. Published by Rumford Chemical Works, this almanac features advertisements for Professor Horsford's baking powder and acid phosphate along with other products manufactured by Rumford … This compound acted as the acid. Clabber Girl’s Rumford brand also offers a reduced-sodium baking powder that’s guaranteed … "("Stradley(a)", n.d, para.5). His inventions include a photometer and a calorimeter, and, given his interest in the "useful arts," he devised a stove, a roaster, and a lamp with multiple wicks. 17th Annual Photo Contest Finalists Announced. The development of baking powder made baking easier, quicker and more reliable for bakers in the mid-19th century. At the same time, he was working on other ideas that might yield products for marketing. Baking powder works by releasing carbon dioxide gas into a batter or dough through an acid-base reaction, causing bubbles in the wet mixture to expand and thus leavening the mixture. See the application for a patent in the East Providence Historical Society. 1911 softcover booklet of recipes Very good condition, minor blemishes of age, no writing or markings. In 1779 he was made a fellow of the Royal Society. In 2006 Rumford Baking Powder was designated a National Historic Chemical Landmark in recognition of its significance for making baking easier, quicker, and more reliable. In addition to beating air into their eggs, they often used a kitchen staple called pearlash, or potash, which shows up in the first American cookbook, American Cookery, in 1796. October is National Cookie Month as well as American Archives Month, therefore baking powder is the perfect topic for a post. History of Baking Powder: 1843 – The first modern version of baking powder was discovered and manufactured by Alfred Bird (1811-1878), British chemist and founder of Bird and Sons Ltd. His improved version of baking powder was created so he could make yeast-free bread for his wife, Elizabeth, who had allergies to eggs and yeast. The supply and price of cream of tartar was erratic depending on the grape harvest. In 1873, another company, the Royal Baking Powder Company, was set up in Manhattan. Old Rumford Chemical Works factory, restored (undated). Horsford worked at a time when chemistry was only just beginning to be considered a respected field, and ended up creating the first modern chemistry lab in the United States at Harvard University. "The flour should be dried before the fire, sifted and weighed; currants washed and dried; raisins stoned; sugar pounded, and rolled fine and sifted; and all spices, after being well dried at the fire, pounded and sifted," reads a common cake recipe in the 1841 cookbook Early American Cookery. (Retrieved November 24, 2020) Also of Interest. Grown in ancient Mesopotamia and Egypt, wheat was probably chewed at first. It was packaged in bottles, but Horsford wanted to use metal cans for packing, which meant the mixture had to be more moisture resistant. Horsford spent two years in Giessen, studying the nutritive value—including the protein content—of various grains among other topics in organic chemistry. Horsford was a patron of the sculptor Anne Whitney, and a bust of Horsford was made for Wellesley College by Whitney. In advertisements, Royal touted the "purity" of its more expensive product, while claiming that other baking powders were "injurious" to one’s health. As the father of five girls, Horsford spent part of his wealth on supplying Wellesley College with books and apparatus. Daily highlights from the chemistry of spices; The quality of this Baking Powder is what gives the baked goods consistency in quality and uniformity. For a riveting account of the rise, and fall, of civilizations, see Jared Diamond, Guns, Germs, and Steel, (New York: W.W. Norton, 1997). Paul Jones has established that Horsford deserves recognition for inventing baking powder, a view shared by Liebig himself. We have grown from a wholesale grocery company dating back to the 1850s. Eben Norton Horsford then developed Rumford baking powder in 1865; he added cornstarch to make baking powder more moisture resistant. When Howe evacuated Boston in March, 1776, Thompson sailed to England. "9 Later in 1847, the Rumford chair was transferred to the Lawrence Scientific School, created on a gift from Abbott Lawrence, and Horsford's salary doubled to $3,000 a year. For example, in 1868 Wilson received patents for a phosphoric acid pump with vulcanized rubber valves and for the use of porcelain-lined iron kettles for concentrating phosphoric acid. (Retrieved November 24, 2020) Also of Interest. The Collegium Pistorum did not allow bakers or their children to withdraw from the guild and enter other professions; but it did protect the special privileges the state granted bakers. Creator Rumford Chemical Works Remove constraint Creator: Rumford Chemical Works Subject Advertising--Baking powder ... 1887 Published by Rumford Chemical Works, this almanac features advertisements for Professor Horsford's baking powder and acid phosphate along with other products manufactured by Rumford Chemical Works. PLUS, Rumford’s packaged it in the convenient red can, so all you had to do was spoon it out. The American Chemical Society dedicated the development of baking powder by Eben Horsford a National Historic Chemical Landmark in a ceremony at the Rumford Chemical Works in East Providence, Rhode Island, on June 12, 2006, and at Clabber Girl headquarters in Terre Haute, Indiana, on April 27, 2007. Soon, a German pharmacist, August Oetker popularized baking powder by selling it to housewives. History of Baking Powder  Baking powder were discovered in 1843 by a British chemist named Alfred Bird and founder of Birds and Sons Ltd In 1869 Rumford began the manufacture of what can truly be considered baking powder in honor of Count Rumford. In his will he left Harvard University an annuity of $1,000, plus some additional funds, to establish a professorship "to teach… the utility of the physical and mathematical sciences for the improvement of the useful arts, and for the extension of industry, prosperity, happiness, and well-being of Society." Horsford later had the idea to put the two together in one container. In that same collection are remnants of the ugly wars fought within the growing baking powder industry around the turn of the 20th century. Explore chemistry education resources by topic that support distance learning. or If you wanted your cake to be fluffy and airy, rather than dense and flat, you would need to do some serious work make it rise. With Thanksgiving close at hand the homemaker is thinking seriously of pumpkin pie and cranberry sauce. Product description Rumford 8.1 oz Baking Powder. Without this miraculous white substance, "We literally would not have cake as we know it now," says Linda Civitello, a food historian and author of the new book Baking Powder Wars. On Horsford's life, see Samuel Rezneck, "The European Education of an American Chemist, and Its Influence in 19th-Century America: Eben Norton Horsford," Technology and Culture 11 (1970): 366-88. Read more. Cookie Policy By 1896, the U.S., population 76 million, was using some 120 million pounds of baking powder annually. While the introduction of calcium acid phosphate satisfied the supply problem presented by cream of tartar, the baker still had to mix two products to get a satisfactory leavening agent. Dr. Oetker. By the mid-1860s “Horsford’s Yeast Powder” was on the market as a pre-mixed leavening agent. The next time you pull out that mason jar of baking powder from the cupboard, think of the history behind such an unassuming ingredient. He did not stay long enough to receive a doctorate. the Baking Powder War. Chemistry Advent Calendar 2020 ChemistryViews 2020. The cardboard barrels containing Quadrofos (a textile wet cleaner), Kalye (a cleaner) and Lytona (also a cleaner) were made at the plant. Corn starch remains an essential feature of most baking powders. . He continued his interest in the chemistry of nutrition, with early studies on potatoes and the condensation of milk. 1911 softcover booklet of recipes Very good condition, minor blemishes of age, no writing or markings. Rumford Baking Powder, commemorative booklet produced by the National Historic Chemical Landmarks program of the American Chemical Society (ACS), USA, 2006. This process was unpredictable, since it was hard to control how acidic the sour milk actually was, meaning it was difficult to know how much baking soda to use or how long to bake for. In any event, while in Germany, he was nominated for the Rumford chair at Harvard University. Early man's awareness that he could store food to ward off hunger and starvation ultimately gave him time to develop other useful skills besides hunting, fishing, and herding. The formulation began in 1891 and production technique patented in 1903. Anon., Eighty Years of Baking Powder History: 1859-1939, Rumford, RI, Rumford Chemical Works, 1939; Anon, "History of the Rumford Chemical Works," typed manuscript, dated April 15, 1947, in the East Providence Historical Society; Anon., "The Story of Baking Powder — The Story of Rumford, reprint from Oil-Power in East Providence Historical Society. Horsford went on to start Rumford Baking Powder, but a few years later, he faced competition from newcomer Royal Baking Powder. He cleaned the streets of Munich of beggars, giving them clean quarters and putting them to work. At the age of 36 the King of England knighted Thompson; at 38 the Elector made him a Count of the Holy Roman Empire. At the same time, a new strain of wheat was developed which permitted refined white bread. In 1864 Horsford obtained a patent for a self-rising flour containing calcium acid phosphate and sodium bicarbonate. In early America, making a cake was an ordeal. If you do not respond, everything you entered on this page will be lost and you will have to login again. Antonio and Sylvie Roder, (New York: Abrams, 1999) and the following Web sites: "The Story Behind a Loaf of Bread: The History of Bread. The Rumford Baking Powder is made from Non-GMO verified ingredients, Gluten-Free and is Vegan. Rumford Reduced Sodium Baking Powder. Thompson was allowed to choose his own title; he selected Count Rumford, after the name by which Concord, New Hampshire, had been known before 1765. Baking powder was the main output of the Rumford Chemical Works. Portrait of Benjamin Thompson, also known as Count Rumford. "You're talking upwards of 12 hours of rising, usually more like 24 hours," says Jessica Carbone, a scholar in the National Museum of American History's Food History Project. This process extracted monocalcium phosphate, creating an acid that would react with baking soda to create CO2. Rumford Baking Powder was manufactured at the Rumford Center from 1869 to 1968. First you had to make the yeast, by letting fruit or vegetables or grains ferment. His unpopularity in Concord forced him to leave his wife and infant daughter to return to Massachusetts. In the early years of the factory the source for calcium was bones, which were treated with sulfuric acid. With Thanksgiving close at hand the homemaker is thinking seriously of pumpkin pie and cranberry sauce. In 1780 Thompson became Secretary of State for the Northern Department, which comprised New York, New England, and sections of Canada. Professor Eben Horsford and George Wilson joined forces to establish a plant to manufacture chemicals needed by New England's many and varied industries. Horsford wrote reverentially of attending his first lecture given by Liebig. Horsford's leavening products were marketed originally as "Horsford's Yeast Powder" and later as "Rumford Baking Powder". Bakers began buying both chemicals in bulk, but they had to be kept separate to prevent a premature acid-base reaction occurring. As such it was marketed for decades and contained the same three ingredients—calcium acid phosphate, sodium bicarbonate, and corn starch—in the same proportions as in Horsford's day. The mixing of sodium bicarbonate and cream of tartar marked the introduction of baking powder. “Was there a city of Norumbega” on the Charles River just upstream from Cambridge? He mixed the two in a container with a little cornstarch and baking powder was born. (It is frustrating that the smallest size of, say, Clabber Girl is still way more than I will ever use before it expires.) See the container for the best by date. Liebig considered himself an agricultural chemist, an emphasis appealing to Americans living in what was a predominantly rural, agrarian society. In 1856 Horsfored received a patent for "pulverulent phosphoric acid," which coincided with the transfer of operations from Pleasant Valley to East Seekonk. The acid component, calcium acid phosphate, originally manufactured from bones, replaced cream of tartar, an expensive byproduct of the European wine industry. This academic post had been established by Count Rumford, an inventor and entrepreneur. "It's really the first chemical that opens the floodgates for chemicals in food," Civitello says. Baking powder is made up of Baking soda (sodium bicarbonate, NaHCO3), cream of tartar (potassium bitartrate, C4H5KO6), and cornstarch. Baking powder was the main output of the Rumford Chemical Works. Through his wife, Thompson met the colonial governor, John Wentworth, who commissioned him in the New Hampshire militia. But his major scientific focus was on heat and his most important discoveries centered on the contention that heat is a form of motion. Other competitors soon sprung up, and Royal was willing to resort to vicious tactics to gain control of the market. Horsford understood little of the German, but commented that Liebig's experiments were "executed with skill, dexterity, grace, and rapidity."8. Horsford formulated and patented Rumford Baking Powder, the first calcium phosphate baking powder. The students rose when the professor entered the hall and "all was breathless." The introduction of sodium bicarbonate with an acid marked a significant advance in baking technique. Once you’d done that, your hard-earned rising agent could still be killed or weakened by temperatures that were too hot or too cold, or contamination from bacteria. While Library and Archives staff came up with their favorite recipes to share with the Rensselaer Community, I recalled an important collection in the Archives regarding Rumford Chemical Works, thus making the unique possibility of uniting cookies and archives a reality. In 1861 the boundary between Massachusetts and Rhode Island was adjusted with the result that East Seekonk Massachusetts, became part of East Providence, Rhode Island, so the corporation had to be chartered again in Rhode Island. Ingredients are monocalcium phosphate, sodium bicarbonate, and cornstarch. Call for abstracts closes Jan. 19, 2021. After several months wandering Europe, Thompson entered the service of the Elector of Bavaria, in whose employ he remained for fifteen years, achieving prominence as a public servant. P.S. “It's the one ingredient everyone has on their shelf." Advertising Notice In Egypt, around three thousand years ago, someone isolated yeast and discovered how to introduce the culture directly into dough. (Many early recipes recommend obtaining the help of a manservant.). Promoting excellence in science education and outreach. Use of Baking Powder Makes Less Sugar Necessary In Preparation of Sauce. Now, instead of purchasing two separate ingredients at the pharmacy (where chemicals were sold at the time), and having to precisely measure out each one, would-be bakers could grab one container off the grocery store shelf and be ready to go. In 1846, the introduction of baking soda, a salt that can react with an acid to create carbon dioxide, made things easier. These two factors—that the components of baking powder had to be kept separate and that the availability of cream of tartar was erratic—fueled the search for a more efficient and economical baking powder. In the 1860s, a lot of companies added other ingredients in their baking powders. During and immediately after the Civil War, New Englander Eben Horsford’s Rumford Baking Powder pioneered the industry, making it easier to bake bread. The fight culminated in 1899, when Royal managed to bribe the Missouri legislature to pass a law banning the sale of all alum baking powders in the state, according to Baking Powder Wars. Let ACS help you navigate your career journey with tools, personal coaching and networking. First and foremost, Rumford baking powder was a convenience product – one of the first. In this early form of baking powder, the MCP and soda were wrapped individually, later being blended with cornstarch to be sold as Rumford Baking Powder. October is National Cookie Month as well as American Archives Month, therefore baking powder is the perfect topic for a post. This was accomplished by While Library and Archives staff came up with their favorite recipes to share with the Rensselaer Community, I recalled an important collection in the Archives regarding Rumford Chemical Works, thus making the unique possibility of uniting cookies and archives a reality. The leavening agent was popularized by and manufactured for years at Rumford Chemical Works, in Rumford Center. Also, the mid-19th century was a very mobile period in American history. In 2006, the American Chemical Society designated Rumford Double-Acting Baking Powder as a National Historic Chemical Landmark, as a “seminal achievement” in … Horsford chose the corporate name which recognized the scientific achievements of Benjamin Thompson, Count Rumford, as well as the Rumford Chair which he occupied at Harvard and which had been founded by a grant from Count Rumford. Now established as a professor, Horsford married Mary Gardiner on August 4, 1847. Explore the interesting world of science with articles, videos and more. Ceremonies were attended by Joseph Larisa Jr., the town's mayor. It became part of Rhode Island in 1862. Eben Horsford’s unique formula was an important innovation and made the making of biscuits, cookies and other quick baking products simpler than before. Give a Gift. Rumford Baking Powder was launched 140 years ago right here in Rhode Island, developed by Eben Horsford. “Rumford Baking Powder” commemorative booklet produced by the National Historic Chemical Landmarks program of the American Chemical Society in 2006 (PDF). He reformed the organization of the military, which raised morale, lessened the paper-work required of officers, and improved the pay, provisions, and leisure time of enlisted men. Unfortunately, cream of tartar was an expensive byproduct of winemaking that had to be imported from Europe, meaning that it was out of reach for many poorer Americans. This appointment apparently caused resentment among his neighbors who felt there were veterans of the French and Indian War better qualified for the commission. He also may have been the author of a secret letter to British General Gage which conveyed military information about colonial troops during the siege of Boston. In addition to marketing Horsford's pulverulent phosphoric acid, the firm was producing hydrochloric and nitric acids and tin chloride. So Horsford and Wilson needed to develop a manufacturing process based on then available raw materials, either bones or spent bone black from sugar refining. The commemorative plaques read: In the mid-19th century, Eben Horsford, Rumford Professor at Harvard University, devised a unique mixture for baking, which he named "yeast powder" and later called baking powder. Eben Horsford’s unique formula was an important innovation and made the making of biscuits, cookies and other quick baking products simpler than before. The only significant change came in the source of the calcium acid phosphate; in the late 1880s, the introduction of calcium phosphate mining eliminated the need for beef bones. You shall have a good laboratory, well furnished and a cordial welcome from all your associates. History of Baking Powder  Baking powder were discovered in 1843 by a British chemist named Alfred Bird and founder of Birds and Sons Ltd In 1869 Rumford began the manufacture of what can truly be considered baking powder in honor of Count Rumford. In the 18th century, American bakers were already experimenting with less labor-intensive ways to make things rise. Besides this grueling work, you had to plan ahead. Launch and grow your career with career services and resources. And we aren’t talking about dry or refrigerated yeast; this was way before fridges and commercial packaging. in civil engineering. The development of baking powder made baking easier, quicker and more reliable for bakers in the mid-19th century. It was not until the 1870s that the famous Cavendish Laboratory opened in Cambridge, England. Initially, Horsford extracted the compound, monocalcium phosphate, from boiling the bones of animals. Rumford Baking Powder has a shelf life of two years after the manufacturing date (or six months after opening). So thank chemistry and modern science that you're not one of those early American bakers, pounding and sifting for all eternity. 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The first product resembling baking powder was created by English chemist Alfred Bird in the late 1840s. Thompson was born in Woburn, Massachusetts, on March 26, 1753. Rumford wasn't alone for long in the baking powder industry. It was not uncommon for young Americans to travel to Europe in the 19th century for advanced scientific training, especially at German universities. Rumford was also an early proponent of the potato as good, cheap and filling food, though this New World ingredient was still viewed with suspicion by many Europeans. As these finicky little fungi grow and divide, they breathe in oxygen and release carbon dioxide like we do. In 1856 Wilson moved the equipment in the Pleasant Valley plant to a facility on a site in East Seekonk, Massachusetts, which he had purchased. To get the best possible experience using our website, we recommend that you upgrade to latest version of this browser or install another web browser. Also contains a history of the Rumford Chemical Works on the inside back cover. With cornstarch to soak up any excess moisture and prevent them from reacting prematurely Gift... Very good condition, minor blemishes of age, no writing or markings in! The 20th century important discoveries centered on the contention that heat is a of... Scientific research stemmed from his own scientific inquiries starch to the presence moisture. Science that you 're not one of the market major scientific focus was on the Charles just. Had the idea to put the two together in one container wine,... Breathless. a chemist named Eben Norton Horsford, a chemistry professor at Harvard University in Cambridge, England will! Ugly wars fought within the growing baking powder was born in Woburn, Massachusetts, on July,... Simple acid-base chemistry is the origin of sourdough, and it continued experiment... Part because he wanted an outlet for the Northern Department, which still exists Wellesley with! 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