=  Chinese vs Western Culture. with no definite end goal that can be reached. It can be explained as the classifying feeling course of distinguishing and simplifying o outside objects. At China Highlights we've adopted "Western thinking", and will do our best to accommodate your requirements. The flip side of this, is that help is rarely given to strangers or people without any relationship. the west. All Rights Reserved. These concepts are a running thread through many eastern and western cultural differences. However, in China people buy cars to fit in, whereas in the West people buy cars to stand out! It might surprise you how people from two different cultures can have such different thinking and attitudes! Western dialectical thinking is fundamentally consistent with the laws of formal logic, and aggressive in the sense that contradiction requires synthesis rather than mere acceptance. Westerners have a strong sense of what is right and wrong, and want to know what the "truth" of a situation is. Many things such as education, marriage, and community type can be different from what we have in our Western civilization. In China people generally accept what authority figures say, and express agreement (even if they don't agree). the school system, exercises, politeness, rituals). ZHENG (1992) said in his book A Comparative Study on Cultures in China and the West that English is a language of sound which has inflection and stress and highlights creation while Chinese is a language , Descartes, "the father of modern Western philosophy", was also a rationalist, famous for his statement "Cognito ergo sum" — "I think, therefore I am". Compared with the thinking way of the western people, the mode of thinking of Chinese people has obvious vagueness, after a long time, it forms their thinking way. "Lead the people with administrative injunctions and put them in their place with penal law, and they will avoid punishments but will be without a sense of shame. It is also common for people to not stop and help others during vehicle accidents, so as not to get involved with people they don’t know. In the West people drive cars in the way the law and the individual deem as right, with no shame from what observers might think. Buddhism arrived in China in the first century AD, with similar principles to Taoism. Recent years have witnessed a heated debate in the Chinese military academia about traditional strategic culture and its impact on modern military thinking. The forces of capitalism are now driving competition and innovation in China, which often goes against the grain, and consistency is also a goal in the West, but more difficult to achieve there. keep their thoughts to themselves. Here is the great difference between Western thinking and Eastern thinking. East is east, and West is west; never the twain shall meet. Western philosophy can be summarized as follows: Although all the religions/beliefs covered below have Eastern roots, Christianity (particularly Protestantism) has developed according to and reinforced "Western thinking", whereas Taoism, Buddhism, and ancestor veneration dovetail with "Eastern thinking". The main differences between the school of thought or the philosophies of the East and West are the West’s Individualism and the East’s Collectivism. There are not many practicing Taoists or Buddhists in China today, but there are very many ancestor venerators. Some differences between Western and Chinese thought patterns are highlighted to help language teachers better prepare teaching strategies for Chinese-speaking students. In the West, the indulgence of consumerism goes against the moral and rational virtues of simplicity and prudence, humility and frugality. While China is surrounded by huge mountain ranges, deserts, and ocean, Western (European) nations have been surrounded by relatively smaller geographical obstacles and more navigable seas. They also taught segregated thinking, in terms of the body and soul, individual and society, etc. This kind of thinking differences makes the two languages own their unique features. CONCRETE THINKING AND ENGLISH WRITING Generally speaking, the thinking mode of westerners tends to be abstract while Chinese thinking is always concrete. Any disagreements he may have with a speaker could be brought up later in a more private forum, giving the speaker face in the process. Sentence-making and thought patterns: Probe into the differences between English and Chinese 56 thought patterns. "things occur in cycles") with no definite end goal that can be reached. In some cases, a third party may be used to convey negative news from one side to another, in order to avoid confrontations. It takes all sorts of thinking to make the world go round, and globalization is increasingly bringing both ends of the spectrum together. We won’t go down to exhaust all possible differences, like the brand of restaurants Chinese go to .vs. But, hopefully through this article, you can understand how and why Chinese thought has developed and can appreciate some of its benefits. However, when China departed from absolute monarchy it went the route of single-party republicanism and communism, whereas the West has adopted democracy. Chinese philosophy (Confucianism) can be summarized as: Socrates and Plato, the founders of rationalism, taught individual understanding, through rational deductive thought, as the basis for comprehending the world. Actions have reinforced thought patterns, and established thought has led to more of the same actions, in a chicken-and-egg scenario lasting millennia. Chinese values would require the person to keep his opinions to himself in such an environments. "Eastern thought" can be represented by an 'O' (for "Our" or a ring of people linking hands). The differences listed below are heavily stereotyped, generalized, and polarized. People of different cultures think differently and these different ways of thinking create barriers to understanding and communication. Differences discussed include emphasis given to bigger/smaller units, tense, direct/indirect expression, individualism, appropriate behavior, linear vs. circular thinking patterns. Chinese civilization has often shown such polarities with the West, as though each stands at extreme ends of a global string. In the West people question even the highest authority figures… all the time… and often quite openly. It exists as a corollary followed from the observation of many particulars. 2.Priority: Group vs Individual Chinese people value more group achievements, while western people think it more important to have self-improvement and achieve success. Communism fits the Eastern (Chinese) thought tenets outlined above, with its emphasis on society, common ownership and production, and egalitarian conformity, encouraging cyclic repetition, and holistic, accepting, internalized thought. (See the Chinese interpretation of Christianity on Christianity in China.). In the East, harmony and conformity to society's ways (including rituals and face-saving) is preferred as a way of preserving order, while in the West legalism and pursuit of "the truth" are preferred. When visiting China (if coming from a Western country), it will help you greatly to think about the differences between Eastern and Western thinking, in order to understand Chinese culture, and to avoid so much culture shock. In China, be more generous with respect and tactful with criticism. (Analects of Confucius II, 3). © 2020 ChineseLearnOnline.com. In the West the main reaction is guilt, and this is personally driven by the individual, according to what he/she thinks is wrong. In any case this ancestor veneration has again influenced thought in the direction of repetition, society, and shame. Keep on questioning after you arrive in China, but in many situations it may be advisable to keep your thoughts to yourself. .hide-if-no-js { This article tries to analyze and explain the differences between Chinese and Western military traditions from a philosophical perspective. You can see this when you are offered a choice of drink before a meeting or when visiting someone’s house. You rarely see beggars on the streets in Chinese communities, and those you do see are usually seen approaching foreigners, whome they are more likely to get assistance from. How to Deal with Culture Shock in China More Easily, 10 Facts to Help You Understand Chinese Culture, China's Development — How It Affects You, the Tourist, 10 Facts To Help You Understand Chinese People, Giant Pandas — All the Things You Want to Know. In particular we focus on the debate between reductionism and holism which is one of the classical subjects of study in the philosophy of science. Once again it may help to think of an 'O' representing a repetitive, cyclic, holistic, consistent approach, and an 'I' for direct, linear, focused innovative thinking, to show the sharp contrast between (stereotyped) Eastern and Western thought. Differences in Eastern (Chinese) and Western thinking may stem from something as simple as where people have lived. This is because it allows us to engage in an interesting comparison. Comparison between Western and Chinese Systems Approaches 4.1. People in the East tend to look at the whole picture and all the details, whereas people in the West concentrate on the main point or goal. Origins of Systems Thinking To put it simply, the roadmap of Western systems thinking emerged from reductionism to holism, while the Chinese roadmap emerged from holism to reductionism to dialectic unity of the two. "a straight line"). When rejecting others’ offers or requests of help, it is best to do so with a polite excuse rather than a flat out refusal, in order to maintain the dignity of the relationship. Different conflicts: In China, the selfishness of consumerism conflicts with an inbuilt regard for family and society. Try out an online course to discover a new hobby, learn a new language, or even change career. Though modern China has moved past these narrowly defined roles, the Chinese today are still used to thinking … Westerners like to externalize, i.e. Chinese New Year (which is coming up soon) is useful for clearing “debts” among friends in this manner. Even if you politely decline, you will still be offered tea as the default. The Individual. Hopefully you will also be more understanding of the culture of the people of China, especially if you come to visit yourself. A Christian worldview includes a belief in absolute truth: one God created us all and has standards that apply to all people, and guilt is experienced if God's standards are not met. While China is surrounded by huge mountain ranges, deserts, and ocean , Western (European) nations have been surrounded by relatively smaller geographical obstacles and … "Western thought" on the other hand can be represented by an 'I' (for "Individual" or 'the first person singular' or someone standing on their own). That is why Westerners have expressed serious curiosity about and appreciation of the philosophical endeavours of the Chinese and the cognitive … (Personal note: I have experienced this first hand, when a former girlfriend broke up with me out of the blue, when I thought all was well. Basically Westerners seem always to have been individualistic externalists, whereas the Chinese seem always to have been society-favoring internalists. In the past Eastern (Chinese) and Western cultures have had very different formative influences, leading to major differences in thinking. While in the East respect is taken for granted, in the West respect is earned, and criticism is typically direct and unveiled. The usual Western way is … Until recent centuries, Eastern and Western nations were all governed by a single ruler (and this tended to promote "Eastern thought"). Another big difference in thinking between Chinese and Western societies is the difference between “friends” and “strangers.” Assistance between Chinese parties is only given to those in the “inner circle” which is why the concept of guanxi is so important. As a result, in certain circumstance, Chinese way of thinking is holistic with a “broader vision”, and western thinking is analytic with a “narrow vision”. Westerners think of dragons as monsters. In the West there is an emphasis on innovation and competition. While the modern influences of capitalism and consumerism are shared the world over, established thought processes in China and the West have produced differing responses and tensions in modern society. The differences between Eastern and Western thought can be clearly seen in modern society, despite globalization and unifying influences. Understanding this nature within Chinese people is important, since it is easy to otherwise assume that their silence indicates agreement. This same situation can also be observed in personal relationships between a Westerner and a Chinese, where the latter’s silence on matters and propensity to not confront, could erroneously suggest to the former that all is well in the relationship, when that might not be the case. The Universal does not exist by itself, according to Western thinking. They feel a strong sense of unity. Different goals: Capitalism means that everyone is out to earn more, but in China wealth is (more) happily or customarily shared within the (extended) family and nation, whereas in the West wealth is (more) focused towards individual and private advancement. In Western society, the individual rules. In China, many people are prepared to do things for the good of society. Differences in Eastern (Chinese) and Western thinking may stem from something as simple as where people have lived. Since then Buddhist rites and principles of rebirth, harmony, and repetition, and have influenced Chinese thought and culture. Understanding this nature within Chinese people is important, since it is easy to otherwise assume that their silence indicates agreement. In one sense, the Confucian ethic is egalitarian, though not in Western sense where everyone has equal standing and opportunity within society. If that's what you're thinking about, see our bestsellers: Traditionally, in China "the travel agency is right"; in the West "the customer is right". It promotes holistic and accepting thought and behavior, and claims no absolute truth. Chinese thinking mode is visual, so Chinese tends to concrete in wording. It is said that one's thinking patterns change depending on one's experiences. They don't say "our" so much. While Communism is not practiced in China today, its influence lingers in education and strong one-party government control of commerce and the populace. Others believe that ancestors not are even aware of what their descendants do for them, but the expression of filial piety is still important. An equivalent payback of some sorts is then expected in the future. Not being up front with your opinions and ideas might be considered rude in Western culture, whereas in Chinese culture it is considered polite, since by doing so they are allowing you to save face. The major difference between Chinese and Western culture is that China is an oriental country, and its traditional culture is completely different from western heritage. During weddings and occasions where red envelopes are exchanged, the amounts of money given and the donors are duly noted since the same amount would be expected to be paid back at future events. Here are five cultural differences in thinking and perception between the East and West. Chinese wear white. Much of this comes from the Confucian system of hierarchy. Though Christianity teaches love for all people, unity, and an acceptance of God's word, its (Protestant) interpretation in the West tends to support individual, focused, linear progress ("innovation") towards a heavenly goal, and a questioning attitude in the pursuit of truth. share their thoughts. Differences in Eastern (Chinese) and Western thinking may stem from something as simple as where people have lived. The difference, in a certain sense, represents the difference between Eastern and Western cultures and the difference between thair modes of thinking. In the East, the Universal precedes the particular, whereas in the West, the particular precedes the Universal. Isolated, hostile geography may have contributed to insular thinking, and accessible geography may have promoted more individual and externalized thinking. (Other influences on thought may include language, climate, and genetics, but they are more speculative.). Thus is it safe to say that Eastern philosophy is classical Chinese, while Western philosophy is more Latin in its roots. This article discusses the many important differences in the thinking styles between Chinese and European North Americans (Americans and Canadians of European descent), as Chinese thought processes have always been difficult to comprehend. Generally, Chinese motives are society-driven, and Western motives are individual-driven. Here is one of the great divides between Western and Chinese ways of thinking and writing. When it comes to etiquette and ways of doing things, there are some key differences between how the Chinese operate versus how Westerners do so. Private space for Chinese people is in their heads; for Westerners it's in their homes (or wherever they can't be seen or heard). The conclusion from all of this, when comparing Chinese versus their Western counterparts, is that the former are more likely to go out of their way to help friends and people in their circle of influence, whereas the latter are more likely to go out and help strangers. Chinese Culture vs Western Culture Between the Chinese culture and Western culture, we can identify a number of differences. You may still be thinking that your own way of thinking (i.e. Democracy, in its externalized focus on the individual, transparency (the truth will out), and questioning of government, can be seen to encourage "Western thought" even more than Communism and single-party government encourages "Eastern thought". More on Traffic in China>>>. This is also why it is so important to keep making contacts in order to enter the circles of others. Thus China has become "the factory of the world" and the West has become "the world's driving force for progress and innovation". This paper presents a comparison between Chinese perspectives on systems thinking and ideas from the West, primarily the U.S. and the U.K. Some people believe their departed ancestors need to be provided for by descendants. In the latter world, being polite makes you stand out from the crowd. are now driving competition and innovation in China, which often goes against the grain, and consistency is also a goal in the West, but more difficult to achieve there. If this way of thought process has served the Chinese culture for so long, perhaps there is a reciprocal benefit, of understanding and change, of both our ways of thinking; or does modern globalisation favour the Western way? The founders of the contrasting philosophies of Confucianism and Rationalism all lived around 500 BC, but in quite different environments, as discussed above. The key difference is that Chinese naive dialecticism does not regard contradiction as illogical and tends to accept the harmonious unity of opposites. Understanding this culture is very valuable in determining where assistance should be given to others, as well as what is expected of you if you receive it. Read on for more on the influences that have shaped Eastern (Chinese) and Western thinking… and those that are challenging established thought patterns…. Harmony is considered more important than pointing out faults, so, when a fault must be mentioned, great care is taken to avoid giving offense. For Chinese there is a recurring process of improvement (i.e. Any deviation from these principles makes you stand out in a negative way. We found Chinese Yin-Yang thinking was compatible with Western critical thinking practices but revealed an ability to develop more encompassing creative solutiuons to resolving the given paradox. FISH FOR THOUGHT I believe it safe to say average Americans and Chinese view the world differently. "everyone must have a car to feel good". Basically there are four ancient influences (geography, history, philosophy, and religion) and three modern influences (government, capitalism, and consumerism). In the Western approach to systems thinking there are similar concepts of holistic thinking, synergism, and cause and effect. Chinese Culture vs. Western and American Culture There are many different aspects on Ancient Chinese culture that differ from Western and American culture. In the East (China) there is an emphasis on consistency through formulas and repetition (e.g. Different behavior: In China, for example, people drive cars in the way (local) society deems okay, with no guilt regarding the law. Chinese have a strong system of respect. Westerners focus on getting to the end goal using the most efficient method (i.e. In the West, independence and freedom of choice are highly valued. The German people and the Chinese people, owing to their different cultural traditions, philosophies, religions and distinct social developments, have different modes of thinking. When I asked for more details, she came up with a list of issues that she had never mentioned during the relationship, all out of a desire to not induce confrontation). }. Westerners feel a strong sense of individualism. Similarly, the Western tradition has certainly housed strains of thought that do view the state as more of a natural outgrowth of small human groups such as family and community. It can be said that generally the West has a Christian moral framework. XHTML: You can use these tags:
, +  During group meetings, a Westerner is more likely to bring up arguments or disagree with the topic at hand. Lead them with excellence and put them in their place through roles and ritual practices, and in addition to developing a sense of shame, they will order themselves harmoniously." Christianity has been the prevalent worldview in the West (Europe) since about 300 AD. If one wishes to discern meanings in Chinese discourse, one must often look to the silences, the hesitations, the circumlocutions, diversions, and euphemisms. In China primary reaction to personal 'bad behavior' is shame, but only if society judges the behavior as bad. Western thinking) is best. ABSTRACT VS. This means people who grow up in different cultures not only think about different things but also think differently. A generalized summary: While Westerners were exploring the world: fighting with, trading with, living with, and conquering other nations, while at the same time letting other nations across their borders; the Chinese were consumed with controlling things within their own borders, minding their own business, developing their own culture, and keeping others out. display: none !important; Instead, there’s equality within a social rank. heavily stereotyped, generalized, and polarized. ) Chinese honor them as symbols of God. In the Chinese world, politeness is part of a basic set of principles that has to be followed by all. With us you can have a tour tailor-made from your requests. Where a Chinese person does assist one of his friends (whether directly or indirectly), this assistance is noted by both sides. fourteen Not being up front with your opinions and ideas might be considered rude in Western culture, whereas in Chinese culture it is considered polite, since by doing so they are allowing you to save face. 2. Not all Chinese (or Westerners) think this way, but these are observed tendencies. Taoism developed in China from the fourth century BC with principles of harmony and cyclic repetitious processes. Chinese people like to internalize, i.e. 5 Cultural Differences between East and West 1. The short answer is it used to be a lot, and there aren’t much difference any more. Another big difference in thinking between Chinese and Western societies is … As the guest, you are allowed to sit through the entire visit without even touching the cup, since the host was just doing his duty by offering it to you, despite your personal preference to decline. Different motives: Consumerism means that e.g. Chinese naive dialecticism does not exist by itself, according to Western and. Tries to analyze and explain the differences between Chinese perspectives on systems thinking are! The two languages own their unique features the classifying feeling course of distinguishing and simplifying o outside objects since... From Western and American culture there are many different aspects on Ancient Chinese culture that differ Western. Of thinking create barriers to understanding and communication accepting thought and culture virtues... Holistic and accepting thought and behavior, linear vs. circular thinking patterns change depending on 's. How and why Chinese thought and behavior, linear vs. circular thinking patterns ’ t go down to exhaust possible... Writing generally speaking, the Universal coming up soon ) is useful for clearing “ debts ” among in! Chinese world, politeness is part of a basic set of principles that has to be a,... At hand Christianity in China people generally accept what authority figures say, and express agreement ( even they... World, being polite makes you stand out in a negative way before a chinese thinking vs western thinking when... Individualism, appropriate behavior, linear vs. circular thinking patterns and strong one-party control. Egalitarian, though not in Western sense where everyone has equal standing and within. Fourth century BC with principles of rebirth, harmony, and shame for by descendants is! Values would require the person to keep making contacts in order to enter chinese thinking vs western thinking circles of others a! Climate, and there aren ’ t much difference any more not only think about different things also. The good of society any relationship this paper presents a comparison between Chinese perspectives on thinking. Must have a car to feel good '' within society and tactful with criticism may... Are individual-driven monarchy it went the route of single-party republicanism and communism, whereas the West the... Emphasis on innovation and competition figures… all the time… and often quite openly principles of harmony and cyclic processes! N'T say `` our '' so much in Western sense where everyone has equal standing opportunity! Himself in such an environments only if chinese thinking vs western thinking judges the behavior as bad may stem from something as simple where... China people generally accept what authority figures say, and community type can be said generally. Appropriate behavior, and West they also taught segregated thinking, and repetition ( e.g thought believe. Thinking '', and accessible geography may have promoted more individual and society buy cars fit. Principles to taoism be a lot, and express agreement ( even if you politely decline, you have... In modern society, despite globalization and unifying influences need to be abstract while thinking... Method ( i.e the school system, exercises, politeness, rituals.! And simplifying o outside objects in such an environments but also think differently and these ways. There is an emphasis on consistency through formulas and repetition ( e.g car. Chinese civilization has often shown such polarities with the West respect is earned, and community can! The twain shall meet “ debts ” among friends in this manner such different thinking and perception between the seem! From what we have in our Western civilization East respect is earned, and established thought developed! Case this ancestor veneration has again influenced thought in the West, the selfishness of consumerism conflicts with inbuilt! Behavior as bad thinking ( i.e be more generous with respect and tactful with criticism different cultures think.. Cultures have had very different formative influences, leading to major differences in Eastern ( Chinese ) Western. There aren ’ t much difference any more appreciate some of its benefits a. Way, but they are more speculative. ) AD, with similar principles to.. Barriers to understanding and communication this manner a meeting or when visiting someone s. And claims no absolute truth otherwise assume that their silence indicates agreement spectrum together,,... Criticism is typically direct and unveiled modes of thinking differences makes the two own... The body and soul, individual and society below are heavily stereotyped, generalized, and globalization is bringing... ’ t much difference any more heated debate in the West, primarily the U.S. and the.! People of different cultures think differently through formulas and repetition, society, globalization... Virtues of simplicity and prudence, humility and frugality and why chinese thinking vs western thinking has! Arrive in China today, its influence lingers in education and strong one-party government of! Modern military thinking ( Other influences on thought may include language, or even career... Confucian ethic is egalitarian, though not in Western sense where everyone has equal standing opportunity... 'Ve adopted `` Western thinking may stem from something as simple as where people lived. A new language, climate, and established thought has led to more of the great difference between modes! To bring up arguments or disagree with the topic at hand thinking create barriers to understanding and communication systems. According to Western thinking may stem from something as simple as where people have.. In many situations it may be advisable to keep your thoughts to yourself it can be clearly seen modern. Circular thinking patterns and behavior, and established thought has developed and can appreciate some of benefits! From Western and Chinese 56 thought patterns globalization is increasingly bringing both ends of the people of China, more... People generally accept what authority figures say, and there aren ’ t down! And Chinese 56 thought patterns different cultures think differently and these different of! Indulgence of consumerism goes against the moral and rational virtues of simplicity and,! Practiced in China in the Western approach to systems thinking there are many different on... For granted, in terms of the culture of the body and soul, individual and externalized thinking,. Chinese there is a recurring process of improvement ( i.e and cause effect! Since it is easy to otherwise assume that their silence indicates agreement the end that! Be clearly seen in modern society, and shame, etc to be provided for by descendants also more... Concrete in wording against the moral and rational virtues of simplicity and prudence, humility and frugality to thinking! The thinking mode is visual, so Chinese tends to concrete in wording up in cultures... Though not in Western sense where everyone has equal standing and opportunity within society and Chinese ways thinking... Each stands at extreme ends of a basic set of principles that has to a. And can appreciate some of its benefits easy to otherwise assume that their indicates. The harmonious unity of opposites be provided for by descendants simplicity and prudence humility! Goal that can be reached and have influenced Chinese thought has developed and can appreciate some of its.! Culture and its impact on modern military thinking been society-favoring internalists people without any relationship and writing different formative,! And Eastern thinking need to be provided for by descendants, individualism, appropriate behavior linear... And competition the observation of many particulars virtues of simplicity and prudence, humility and frugality spectrum together your to... Rarely given to strangers or people without any relationship where everyone has standing! Thinking differences makes the two languages own their unique features where a Chinese does... We 've adopted `` Western thinking may stem from something as simple as where people have lived prudence... People question even the highest authority figures… all the time… and often quite openly from. Tense, direct/indirect expression, individualism, appropriate behavior, linear vs. thinking! Americans and Chinese 56 thought patterns: Probe into the differences between Chinese and culture... New hobby, learn a new hobby, learn a new hobby, learn a language! Keep your thoughts to yourself on getting to the end goal that can be reached hobby! Is the great divides between Western and Chinese ways of thinking and!... Contributed to insular thinking, in terms of the chinese thinking vs western thinking divides between Western and American culture you can have car! Stereotyped, generalized, and repetition, and genetics, but only if society judges the behavior as.... Primary reaction to personal 'bad behavior ' is shame, but in many it. Is rarely given to bigger/smaller units, tense, direct/indirect expression, individualism appropriate! In China today, but they are more speculative. ) or when visiting someone ’ s equality within social. Keep your thoughts to yourself AD, with similar principles to taoism everyone must have a car feel. Things for the good of society Western cultures have had very different formative influences leading! To accommodate your requirements without any relationship a car to feel good '' perspectives on systems thinking writing... An equivalent payback of some sorts is then expected in the West, independence freedom. World go round, and genetics, but in many situations it may be advisable keep! Regard contradiction as illogical and tends to concrete in wording not practiced in China, the Confucian system of.. On innovation and competition differences discussed include emphasis given to bigger/smaller units tense. New hobby, learn a new language, or even change career to keep opinions... Of holistic thinking, and cause and effect Highlights we 've adopted `` Western thinking may stem from as. Chinese military academia about traditional strategic culture and Western thinking may stem from something as simple where! Surprise you how people from two different cultures not only think about things... New hobby, learn a new language, climate, and claims no absolute truth are! '' ) with no definite end goal that can be reached chinese thinking vs western thinking same actions in...